Napoleon

REVIEW: Waterloo: The Campaign of 1815 Volume I, from Elba to Ligny and Quatre Bras

John Hussey’s Waterloo, The Campaign of 1815 Volume I, from Elba to Ligny and Quatre Bras, is an outstanding addition to the body literature on Waterloo and the Hundred Days.  Waterloo constitutes well-trod ground, actually and metaphorically examined by writers almost from the moment the cannons ceased firing. Readers may understandably ask what an author …

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The Congress of Vienna: Aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars

Before the League of Nations, the United Nations, and the European Union, there was the Congress of Vienna. This series of meetings lasted from November 1814 through June 1815 and mostly consisted of discussions between the leaders of several countries in an attempt to keep war from breaking out again. Before the Congress of Vienna, …

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Sous Lieutenant Legros wielding his axe through the North Gate, Hougoumont.

Then & Now: The Defence of Hougoumont (1815)

If Waterloo was the pivotal moment of Napoleon’s return during the Hundred Days, then Hougoumont was linchpin of the Battle of Waterloo itself. The Duke of Wellington, commander of the Allied forces during the battle, later said “The success of the battle of Waterloo, however, turned upon the closing of the gates of Hougoumont.” That …

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