Even though more rifles and handguns are carried by armed professionals, shotguns also

continue to serve in a front line capacity and serve well. The use of shotguns in police work goes

back to the days of the old west, when lawmen augmented their armament, by carrying a double

barrel/side by side shotgun. Many of these shotguns had barrels that were cut back, or shortened in

length, to make them easier to wield in close quarters.

During World War 1, 12 gauge shotguns known as “trench guns” were carried and used by 

certain U.S. troops. The shotgun was such a feared weapon, that Germany formally protested the use of

these firearms by American troops. Needless to say, the German complaint was ignored and the

Americans continued to carry their issued shotguns, while fighting in the trenches.

In the period known as the Roaring Twenties, Prohibition and the Gangster Era, law 

enforcement officers in the U.S. also included shotguns in their armories for a reason. During World

War II, the United States in particular, once again made 12 gauge shotguns available for use by their

military personnel.

A very interesting true story about the use of shotguns during World War II, is documented in 

author and U.S.M.C. Lt. Colonel Kerry Lane’s book entitled, Guadalcanal Marine. In this book, Lt.

Colonel Lane documents how he ended up electing to carry a pump action 12 gauge shotgun, when he

was preparing for the Invasion of Cape Glouster. According to Lt. Colonel Lane, Colonel Chesty Puller

made it possible for him to do so, because Colonel Puller requested 10,000 rounds of 12 gauge

buckshot ammunition, for use by the U.S. Marines, who were expected to take part in the up coming

Invasion of Cape Glouster. When a U.S. Army General from the Quartermaster Corps questioned the

reason why Colonel Puller requested such a large number of shotgun shells, a Marine Lieutenant

reportedly responded and said, “To Kill Japanese.” When the Army General informed this Marine

Lieutenant, that it was a violation of the Geneva Convention, to use shotguns loaded with buckshot

ammunition in combat, the Marine officer, who was acting under the instructions of Colonel Puller,

informed the Army General, that “Colonel Puller didn’t give a damn about the Geneva Convention

anymore than the Japanese did when they bombed Pearl Harbor.”

After having served on Guadalcanal, Colonel Puller knew how intense fighting in the jungle 

could be. As a result, he obviously respected the fighting qualities of a pump action shotgun, as well as

the stopping power of 00 Buckshot ammunition. It is important to note, that at that time, shotgun

ammunition/“shells” that were manufactured for wartime use, were made of brass. This was done,

because the alternative at the time, was to use a heavy paper/cardboard to construct the cases that

contained the actual steel pellets. Even though this manufacturing process made wartime shotgun

ammunition heavier to carry and more expensive to make, using brass cases made shotgun ammunition

able to withstand exposure to harsh operating conditions.

In the post war years, British troops carried semi automatic 12 gauge Browning Auto 5 shotguns 

during the Malayan Emergency. During the Vietnam War, various 12 gauge shotguns were once again

pressed into service and were carried by certain front line U.S. troops, as well as by other personnel.

Shotguns known as “Riot Guns” were also widely used by U.S. law enforcement officers before 

the widespread adoption of the “patrol rifle.” During the Miami Vice Era of the Drug War, I carried

two different government issued 12 gauge Parkerized Remington Model 870 pump action shotguns.

One was a standard 870 with an 18 inch barrel and the other was an 870 with a cut down 14 inch barrel.

Between these two variants I preferred the 870 with the shorter barrel, because this model was better

suited for vessel boarding operations and clearing rooms. When I flew drug interdiction missions in

U.S. Customs aircraft, including in a Black Hawk helicopter, I occasionally carried an issued

Remington 870 with an 18 inch barrel, when I wasn’t carrying my government issued Colt CAR15. I

also owned two Parkerized Ithaca Model 37 12 gauge pump action shotguns; one with wood

“furniture” and one with a pistol grip.
Bear in mind, that back in the day, we used standard velocity 12 gauge 00 Buckshot, Number 4

Buckshot and Rifled Slugs. We did so, because Reduced Recoil shotgun ammunition was not available

at that time. It was also in the last two decades of the 20th Century, that 12 gauge Mossberg pump action

shotguns started to become increasingly more popular, with legally armed citizens and law enforcement

agencies/individual officers. This was especially the case, after Mossberg shotguns were adopted by the

U.S. Armed Forces. In fact, Mossberg pump action shotguns were the only 12 gauge shotguns, that

were able to meet the extremely demanding U.S. Armed Forces Military Specifications (Mil Spec)

3443 requirements. This was achieved, because all three Mossberg pump action models (the 500, 590

and the 590A1) have complete parts compatibility and were able to pass a grueling 3000 round 00

Buckshot endurance test. Mossberg Model 500, 590 and 590A1 pump action shotguns met these rather

rigorous standards back in 1979.


Even though Mossberg shotguns were a proven design by the late 1980s, the reputation of the 

Mossberg Model 500, 590 and 590A1 skyrocketed to an all time high, when these amazing pump

action 12 gauge firearms were subjected to the rigors of desert warfare. It was during Operation Desert

Storm in Iraq, that Mossberg Mil Spec shotguns passed one of the most grueling environmental tests

imaginable. This occurred when numerous Model 500, 590 and 590A1s remained operational under

some of the most adverse operating conditions imaginable. I am of course referring to Mossberg

Mil Spec shotguns being used by U.S. military personnel in a very sandy environment.

The use of pump action Mossberg Mil Spec shotguns continued into the 21st Century, when the 

United States became involved in The Global War on Terrorism; a conflict that involved U.S. and

Coalition/Allied Forces fighting once again in Iraq, as well as in Afghanistan. Just as in prior combat

deployments, Mossberg shotguns were utilized by force protection personnel, for riot control, for

personal protection and as a breaching device. This last application was essential for U.S. military

personnel, while searching for high value targets and while conducting urban warfare, where it was
essential to quickly gain access to locked buildings and rooms. A pump action Mossberg shotgun in the

hands of military personnel was also ideally suited to be used in Close Quarters Battle situations.

Mossberg Mil Spec shotguns also served at sea onboard U.S. Navy and Coast Guard vessels and have

held up to another type of harsh operating conditions, involving the continuous exposure to salt air and


After the terrorist attacks on 9/11/01, tens of thousands of Mossberg M500, 590 and 590A1 12 

gauge shotguns served with distinction during The Global War on Terrorism. Mossberg Mil Spec

shotguns continue to serve in a front line capacity in 2022, with a large number being provided to

the Ukrainian Armed Forces.

To give you a better idea of the popularity of Mossberg Model 500, 590 and 590A1 Shotguns, 

the following is a rather impressive list of nations, that utilize these outstanding firearms, in various law

enforcement and or military applications: The United States, Canada, Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala,

Bermuda, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Argentina, Iceland, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, Germany,

Austria, the Netherlands, Sweden, Poland, Lithuania, Croatia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Malta, Belarus,

Serbia, Mongolia, Georgia, Lebanon, Jordan, Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Algeria, Chad, Sudan, Nigeria,

Cameroon, Rwanda, Somalia, Kenya, South Africa, Mozambique, Madagascar, Lesotho, Pakistan,

Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, India, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia,

Australia, Myanmar, Laos, South Korea, Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu, Fiji and

New Zealand.


Because tens of thousands of Mossberg 12 gauge Mil Spec shotguns earned their stripes while 

being carried in two different desert wars, as well as in the harsh operating conditions of Afghanistan, I

conducted my field test with a 590A1 SPX in high desert terrain. During this evaluation, standard

velocity 00 Buckshot, Number 4 Buckshot, Rifled Slugs, Reduced Recoil 00 Buckshot and Reduced

Recoil Rifled Slugs were fired through a Mossberg 590A1 SPX. I decided to feature a 590A1 SPX in
this review, because this particular firearm is THE MOST well equipped Mil Spec pump action

shotgun on the market today. Here’s why:

The Mossberg M590A1 SPX Model is equipped with an excellent set of Ghost Ring Sights, that 

includes a very easy to acquire front sight blade, that is fitted with an orange insert. While I have never

had a problem using a front bead sight on pump action shotguns, the high viz Ghost Ring Sights on the

590A1 SPX make this shotgun more user friendly, especially when shooting Rifled Slugs. The rubber

pad on the end of the polymer stock is also well designed and helps absorb the sharper recoil that’s

produced by standard velocity shotgun ammunition. When using Reduced Recoil ammunition the

590A1 SPX is even more comfortable to shoot.

The 590A1 SPX also has an 8 plus one round capacity and is very easy to keep loaded, if you 

have been properly trained to use a tube fed shotgun in a Close Quarters Battle Situation. In order to

help the action operate smoothly, when you break in a new shotgun, I highly recommend that you apply

some Ballistol, or some other lubricant on the rails.

The SPX is also fitted with a double walled 20 inch barrel, a Parkerized Finish and a bayonet 

lug. Even though the 590A1 SPX Model is fitted with a 20 inch doubled wall barrel, this model is very

well balanced and weighs 7 pounds unloaded, which is lighter than other pump shotguns that have

fewer features. This includes other pump action shotguns that have slightly shorter barrels. That’s


One of the reasons why I am a huge fan of the 590A1 SPX, is because this shotgun is 

manufactured with a factory applied Parkerized Finish. I developed a profound respect for a Parkerized

Finish, after seeing how well numerous firearms with a Parkerized Finish were protected from

corrosion, after years of service in harsh operating conditions.

                       CLOSING REMARKS

The record speaks for itself. Mossberg Mil Spec pump action 12 gauge shotguns have reliably 

served with tremendous distinction, in some of the most demanding conditions imaginable for over 40
years. As a result of this outstanding track record, I decided to add a Mossberg 590A1 SPX model

shotgun to my battery of personal defense weapons. If you are in the market for a 12 gauge pump

action shotgun, it will definitely be worth your time, to examine the lineup of Mossberg Mil Spec


Nick Jacobellis is a Medically Retired U.S. Customs Agent and a former NY police officer who was physically disabled in the line of duty while working undercover as a federal agent. To date, the author has published over 218 magazine articles and ten action-packed nonfiction, historical fiction, and fiction books: Controlled Delivery Books One and Two, The Frontline Fugitives Books I, II, III, and IV, Buck Banderas U.S. Marshal Books One and Two and A Special Kind of Hero. These books have received 5 Star reviews and are available on (US), and (UK). The K9 Academy is the author’s 10th book. The author was born and raised in Flatbush section of Brooklyn N.Y. and has an BS Degree in Police Science from John Jay College of Criminal Justice